Parameters for Common Solvents
Used in Photothermal and Photoacoustic Spectrometry

Substance

ET(30)

k
(W/m/K)

CP
(J/g/K)

r
(g/cm3)

DTx107
(m2/s)

v
(km/s)

nD20

-(dn/dT)
x104K-1

bx103
K-1

FW
(g/mole)

r/FW
(mole/L)

Rm
(mL/mole)

e

-de/dT
x103 K-1

tetrachloromethane

39.1

0.099

0.85

1.594

0.731

0.93

1.460

6.12

1.15

153.82

10.36

26.4

2.238

1.99

n-pentane

31.0

0.113

2.32

0.626

0.779

1.03

1.358

5.50

1.38

72.15

8.68

25.3

1.769

-0.47

trichloromethane

39.1

0.117

0.96

1.483

0.825

0.99

1.446

6.03

1.17

119.38

12.42

21.5

4.806

18.5

n-hexane

32.4

0.120

2.27

0.655

0.807

1.10

1.375

5.20

1.24

86.18

7.60

30.1

1.890

1.31

dichloromethane

40.7

0.122

1.19

1.327

0.772

 

1.424

5.50

1.13

84.93

15.62

16.3

9.080

37.1

n-heptane

31.1

0.123

2.24

0.684

0.801

 

1.388

4.90

1.12

100.21

6.82

34.6

1.948

1.53

cyclohexane

30.9

0.123

1.84

0.779

0.858

 

1.427

5.56

1.14

84.16

9.25

27.7

2.023

1.55

tetrahydrofuran

37.4

0.126

1.72

0.889

0.824

 

1.405

   

72.11

12.33

19.9

7.520

28.6

n-octane

31.1

0.128

2.23

0.699

0.822

 

1.397

4.70

1.05

114.23

6.12

39.4

1.948

1.29

diethyl ether

34.5

0.130

2.37

0.714

0.769

0.99

1.353

6.06

1.55

74.12

9.63

22.5

4.340

12.5

n-nonane

31.0

0.131

2.22

0.718

0.823

 

1.405

4.50

0.98

128.26

5.59

43.8

1.972

1.40

o-xylene

33.1

0.131

1.75

0.870

0.859

 

1.505

5.00

0.84

106.17

8.19

36.2

2.568

3.18

toluene

33.9

0.131

1.71

0.867

0.886

 

1.496

5.68

0.97

92.14

9.41

31.1

2.379

2.51

n-decane

31.0

0.132

2.21

0.730

0.818

 

1.410

4.20

0.90

142.29

5.13

48.3

1.991

1.28

2-propanol

48.4

0.135

2.60

0.786

0.660

1.14

1.378

4.00

0.94

60.10

13.07

17.6

20.180

164

benzene

34.3

0.141

1.74

0.877

0.923

1.30

1.501

6.52

1.10

78.11

11.22

26.3

2.284

1.75

ethyl acetate

38.1

0.144

1.94

0.900

0.826

1.19

1.372

4.90

1.18

88.11

10.22

22.3

6.020

21.1

carbon disulfide

32.8

0.149

1.00

1.266

1.173

1.15

1.627

8.09

1.03

76.14

16.63

21.3

2.632

0.83

1-propanol

50.7

0.154

2.39

0.804

0.800

1.22

1.385

3.70

0.85

60.10

13.37

17.5

20.800

155

acetic acid

51.7

0.158

2.05

1.049

0.733

 

1.372

3.90

0.94

60.05

17.47

13.0

6.150

-22.6

1,4 dioxane

36.0

0.159

1.73

1.034

0.891

1.38

1.422

   

88.11

11.73

21.7

2.219

1.74

acetone

42.2

0.161

2.17

0.790

0.937

1.17

1.359

5.42

1.36

58.08

13.60

16.2

20.700

115

pyridine

40.5

0.165

1.68

0.982

1.002

1.41

1.510

5.42

0.90

79.10

12.41

24.1

13.260

-196

ethanol

51.9

0.169

2.44

0.789

0.878

1.21

1.361

4.00

0.99

46.07

17.13

12.9

25.300

-277

acetonitrile

45.6

0.188

2.23

0.786

1.075

1.29

1.344

4.50

1.18

41.05

19.14

11.1

36.640

226

methanol

55.4

0.200

2.53

0.791

0.998

1.10

1.329

3.94

1.09

32.04

24.70

8.2

33.000

169

water

63.1

0.598

4.18

1.000

1.431

1.49

1.333

0.91

0.25

18.01

55.52

3.7

80.370

363


Solvents are arranged according to thermal conductivity. Christian Reichardt's spectroscopic solvent polarity scale, labeled ET(30), is based on the solvatochromic charge-transfer absorption shift for ET-30 (a large heteronuclear polycyclic aromatic). See Christian Reichardt, Chemical Reviews, 1994, 94, 2319-2358 for details. Thermal conductivity (k), heat capacity (CP @ 25C), thermal diffusivity (DT), temperature-dependent refractive index, (dn/dT), and volume expansion coefficient (b=(1/V)(dV/dT)), are from several sources; as compiled in Photothermal Spectroscopy Methods for Chemical Analysis, Wiley, 1996, with preference to thermodynamic values specified in David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Ed, 1995. (dn/dT) for toluene, benzene, carbon disulfide, and chloroform are from Hassan El-Kashef, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 1243 1998. Formula weight (FW), refractive index (n, @ 20C, sodium D), and density (r) are from the 1999 Aldrich Chemical Company catalog. Acoustic velocity (v) are from Specialty Engineering Associates (SEA), Soquel, California (USA). Molar refractivities (Rm) are based on refractive indicies and molar densities (r/FW). Dielectric constants (e), and their temperature dependences are from the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Ed, 1995, or calculated based on refractive index and/or it's temperature dependence.

Please send any comments, additions, and/or suggestions to Stephen Bialkowski at Stephen.Bialkowski@usu.edu


Last updated Friday, October 03, 2003